Afrique : Etude sur l’Abordabilité des TIC

Combien de temps doit travailler un consommateur ayant un revenu équivalent au SMIC national, pour s’offrir une heure d’appels vers le réseau national en prépayé ? C’est la question à laquelle Afric’TIC du groupe COGEFI Afrique, un cabinet marocain, vient d’apporter des réponses dans une étude sur l’Abordabilité des TIC dans des économies africaines menée dans 17 pays. Une méthode qui rompt de façon radicale avec les indicateurs classiques comme le taux de pénétration, l’ARPU. Dr Mouad Boumahdi, Directeur général d’Afric’TIC, livre les grandes lignes de cette étude inédite à CIO Mag.

Contexte. Au cours de la dernière décade, et grâce aux différentes politiques de libéralisation et de revue du cadre réglementaire et fiscal, les Technologies de l’Information et de la Communication (TIC) ont connu un essor important en Afrique, avec toutefois de grandes disparités entre Pays, en termes d’usage et de coûts.

L’étude a pour objectifs :

– S’affranchir d’indicateurs classiques : Taux de Pénétration, ARPU, …etc., en montrant leurs limites ;

– Définir une « Expérience Client par rapport aux coûts » ;

– Utiliser un indicateur de l’ « Abordabilité » compréhensible et ayant un sens pour le Client – Consommateur.

Souvent, la représentation du niveau de réussite ou d’échec des politiques du secteur est basée sur des indicateurs macroscopiques quantitatifs, comme le « Taux de Pénétration », « Taux de Couverture », « ARPU : Revenu Moyen par Utilisateur », « Revenu Moyen par Ligne », …etc. Quoiqu’importants, ces indicateurs masquent souvent des différences majeures, ou faussent l’interprétation des résultats.

A titre d’illustration, prenons le cas du « Taux de pénétration » du Mobile :

  1. Défini à une période où quasiment chaque client utilisait une seule carte SIM, impliquant de facto : 1 carte SIM = 1 personne physique, cette équivalence a été battue en brèche, avec l’avènement des terminaux multi-SIM, ou par la chute du coût des terminaux. Le client cherchant à bénéficier des tarifs On-Net plus intéressants que l’Off-Net (surtout quand le coût d’interconnexion est élevé), ou réservant chacune des SIM à un usage spécifique (personnel, professionnel, …etc.).
  2. Cet indicateur ne tient pas compte systématiquement de l’usage réel. Ainsi peuvent être comptabilisées dans le parc (selon le pays) des cartes SIM non-actives : n’ayant pas émis d’appel et/ou reçu d’appel, durant de longues périodes (ou n’émettant ou ne recevant plus d’appel).

Ainsi, cet indicateur seul peut induire en erreur quant à l’état réel de dissémination du mobile, et peut même décourager de potentiels investisseurs. Un taux élevé peut être interprété comme synonyme de marché saturé.

Afin d’y pallier, des institutions internationales ont défini des indicateurs composites : IDI (ICT Development Indicator : Union Internationale des Télécommunications, UIT), e-GOV (Nations Unies), NRI (Network Readiness Indicator : Forum Economique Mondial – Davos), …etc., tendant à mesurer l’interaction entre les TIC et les contextes socio-économiques, réglementaire,…etc. Pour notre part, nous avons choisi d’étudier le critère de l’ « Abordablité » des TIC.

Abordablité des TIC. Presque tous les pays africains ont mis en place des « Stratégies Numériques » volontaristes, en investissant dans les infrastructures, en mettant à niveau les cadres juridiques et réglementaires, et en renforçant les capacités institutionnelles et les compétences. Sachant que la majorité d’entre eux est à faible revenu ou à revenu intermédiaire, et connaissent des niveaux élevés de pauvreté, ces stratégies doivent impérativement intégrer les intérêts de l’une des principales parties prenantes : les consommateurs. Notamment par rapport aux coûts.

La majorité des indicateurs classiques indiqués précédemment donne une représentation du secteur, vu du côté des autorités en charge ou des opérateurs, et négligent souvent le « ressenti » du consommateur. Il est donc pertinent de définir un indicateur mesurant l’ « Expérience Client par rapport aux coûts » compréhensible par les consommateurs. Il permettra à l’ensemble des parties prenantes d’évaluer le niveau d’adéquation entre l’état de l’offre et la « Capacité Potentielle d’Absorption des Consommateurs » des produits et services TIC.

Abordabilité – UIT. Dans son rapport sur la société de l’information (Measuring The Information Society Report – 2016), l’UIT a utilisé comme indicateur d’ « Abordabilité » la notion de « Coût Mensuel d’un Usage Standard (*) » rapporté en pourcentage du Produit Intérieur Brut (PIB) mensuel moyen par habitant. C’est un indicateur important pour établir des comparaisons macroscopiques. Toutefois, il présente une double limite : i) Il est vague pour le commun des consommateurs. ii) La notion de « PIB mensuel moyen par habitant » gomme les différences de revenus entre différentes catégories socio-professionnelles.

 (*) Usage standard : 30 appels et 100 SMS par mois en prépayé

Abordabilité – Effort. Afin de pallier ce qui précède, nous proposons d’utiliser un indicateur universel de l’Abordabilité, basé sur l’effort (lié au travail) nécessaire pour accéder à un service donné. Dans le présent article, nous avons choisi comme référent : un consommateur, souscripteur d’un service prépayé, qui gagne le SMIC et qui consomme une heure d’appels vers le réseau national. L’indicateur à mesurer est : Combien doit travailler un consommateur ayant un revenu équivalent au SMIC national, pour s’offrir 1 heure d’appels vers le réseau national en prépayé ?

L’étude réalisée porte sur un échantillon de 17 économies africaines, elle a été menée au cours du 1er trimestre 2017, et exploite les données de l’année 2016…

Lire la suite sur www.cio-mag.com

Image : http://www.cnetfrance.fr/i/edit/2017/02/smartphone-moins-200-euros.jpg

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